In the aftermath of the 2008 global crisis, the Italian political landscape has been reshaped by the rise of populist and right-wing nationalist parties and movements. Progressives who have tried to respond to the growing demands for social protection have had to do so in a context marked by exclusionary articulations of ideas of welfare state and public intervention. Together with these changes came radical transformations in the very language of politics, also influenced by the emergence of social media as key channels of communication. In this book, the Foundation for European Progressive Studies (FEPS) and Fondazione Gramsci present a four-part study by historians and political scientists that seeks to examine these processes in their different dimensions. Centring around Italy, this book stresses the key role that national traditions and national responses to globalisation play in shaping different framings of nationalist and populist discourses. At the same time, its analyses and results speak to broader European concerns. The transformation of the language of politics and the impact of exclusionary anti-establishment messages affect most EU countries and represent crucial challenges for all European democracies and for European progressive forces. Understanding these processes is the first step towards addressing them.