The Trump administration’s decision to unilaterally cease compliance with the 2015 nuclear deal and implement a policy of “maximum pressure” towards Iran has scuttled the European Union’s policy of conditional engagement with Tehran. This volume – the outcome of a joint FEPS-IAI project – delves into different dimensions of the current rivalries and geopolitical tensions characterising the Middle East, addressing their implications for Europe. The analysis addresses the growing economic hardship in Iran following the re-imposition of US sanctions and the potential and prospects of EU-Iran cooperation in trade and energy domains. A final report addresses EU–Iran relations in the context of the geopolitical tensions surrounding the US’s withdrawal from the nuclear deal and European interests vis-à-vis Iran and the region. Progressive recommendations targeting EU actors span multiple layers of EU-Iran cooperation, both within and beyond the nuclear domain.