The Mediterranean has always represented a main source of opportunities and challenges for Italy’s domestic and foreign policy. This strategic importance has also stemmed from the role that this region played in the construction and integration process of the European Union. The fact that both regions in the north and south of the Mediterranean Sea are currently experiencing deep internal crises does not diminish the importance of this geopolitical space and the EU’s resolution to project its influence over it. This report addresses the broad topic of ‘Italy in the Mediterranean’ in order to shed light on the drivers, priorities and concrete actions Italy has pursued vis-à-vis this region in the period 2016-2018. It argues that domestic and geopolitical changes as well as the lack of cohesion and solidarity among EU member states on specific issues, particularly migration, have been responsible for some important changes that have occurred in Italy’s Mediterranean approaches.