One year after #MeToo and in the week of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women on November 25th, the Foundation for European Progressive Studies (FEPS) and the Fondation Jean-Jaurès have wished to look at gender-based violence and harassment in the street in five European countries (France, Italy, Spain, Germany, United-Kingdom) and in the United States.
This survey carried out by Ifop (the French Institute for Public Opinion) has been presented on the occasion of the conference on “Sexual Harassment and gender-based violence at work: state of play, state of emergency?” co-organised by the Foundation for European Progressive Studies (FEPS) and Fondation Jean-Jaurès which gathered academics, institutional officials, politicians and civil society representatives on November 19th, 2018.
Panorama of different types of sexual harassment and gender-based violence in Europe and the United States:
·How many women have been confronted to disrespectful behaviour on the street?
·How many women have been victim of sexist insults or sexual slurs on the street?
·How many women have been victim of street harassment?
·How many women have been victim of street exhibitionism?
·How many women have been victim of molesting on the street?
·65% of European women have been whistled at on the street in their lives, 70% for American women
·36% of European women have experienced sexist remarks, mocking or insults on the street in their lives, 50% for American women
·36% of European women have experienced obscene gestures with a sexual connotation in their lives (50% for Spanish women), 46% for American women
·56% of German women have approached with insistence in their lives in spite of the absence of their consent (European average: 45%)
·43% of the French women have been followed during part of their way at least once in their lives (European average: 37%)
·35% of the Spanish women have been confronted with street exhibitionism in their lives
·40% of the British women have experienced sexual touching and fondling (e.g. hands placed on buttocks) in spite of the absence of their consent at least once in their lives (European average: 34%), 41% for American women
·40% of German women have been victim of at least one form of sexual assault or molesting on the street during the past 12 months
·86% of French women have been victim of at least one form of sexual assault or molesting on the street
The survey has been carried out with a sample of 6025 women, composed of a representative sample of women aged 18 years old and more across the following countries:
·Italy: 1009 women
·Spain: 1007 women
·France: 1004 women
·Germany: 1004 women
·United Kingdom: 1001 women
·United States: 1000 women
In each country, the survey has been carried out amongst a sample whose representativeness has been guaranteed by the quotas method (age, profession of the person surveyed) after stratification by region. The data guaranteeing the representativeness of the results has been retrieved from data provided by:
·The European Union Labour Force Survey (EU LFS 2014) for the European countries,
·The current Population Survey (CPS 2015) for the United States
The interviews have been carried out by an online self-administered questionnaire from October 25th to 30th, 2018.